Linus Carl Pauling was an American chemist, biochemist, chemical engineer, peace activist, author, and educator. Pauling devoted himself and his laboratory to the war effort. He devised explosives and missile propellants for the Navy, invented an oxygen meter for submarines, and, together with others, developed a synthetic blood plasma substitute to be used for emergency transfusions on the battlefield. After the war, Pauling was increasingly concerned about the dangers he saw in the dawning nuclear age. He became a very active and outspoken opponent of further development, testing, and abuse of nuclear weapons. As a result, he was treated almost as a traitor by the government. During the 1960s, Paulings joined the anti-war movement with enthusiasm. He denounced the war as unnecessary and unconstitutional. Pauling received numerous awards, such as Nobel Peace Prize, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and ACS Award in Pure Chemistry.
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