Philip Francis Berrigan was an American peace activist and Roman Catholic priest. Berrigan engaged in nonviolent, civil disobedience in the cause of peace and nuclear disarmament and was often arrested. Berrigan and others took increasingly radical steps to bring attention to the anti-war movement. The group was later known as the Baltimore Four. He organized or inspired many additional operations. The D.C. Nine, in March 1969, consisted of mostly priests and nuns disrupting the Washington Dow Chemical offices by scattering their files. The group protested Dow’s production of napalm for use in the Vietnam War. On September 9, 1980, Berrigan and the others entered the General Electric Re-entry Division in Pennsylvania, where Mark 12A reentry vehicles for the Minuteman III Intercontinental Ballistic missiles (ICBMs) were made. They hammered on two reentry vehicles, poured blood on documents, and offered prayers for peace. This is considered the beginning of the Plowshares Movement.

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